This study was initiated by the Federation of West African Employers Associations (FOPAO / FWAEA), in partnership with the Employers’ National Council of Guinea (CNPG / ENCG), and prepared with the support of the ACP Business Climate Facility (BizClim), a programme of the ACP Secretariat funded by the European Union (EU) through the 10th European Development Fund (EDF). The objective of the study is "the Elaboration of an Action Plan for the Implementation of Measures and Actions in Favour of the Reduction of the Informal Economy in Guinea"
Study after study shows that Ethiopia's industry is not internationally competitive. A conclusion often derived from this it that it needs to be protected against international competitors.
In a commentary published by AddisFortune we argue that tariff protection has not worked. Rather, what Ethiopia needs is a vastly greater variety of businesses. It needs a veritable eco-system of firms interacting in each other’s supply chains. The Government could facilitate the development of such an eco-system by streamlining business registration and licensing, devising an efficient financing scheme for start-ups, and reducing the cost of trade through trade facilitation.
BKP Development evaluated the EU’s trade defence instruments (TDI) as practiced over the period 2005 to 2010. The evaluation covered:
- a description of current practice in the field of trade defence instruments;
- an economic analysis of the arguments for trade defence instruments and their application in the international legal and economic context;
- a review of the relevant regulations in the light of administrative practice, the judgments of the Court of Justice and the recommendations of the World Trade Organisation's Dispute Settlement Body;
- an assessment of EU policy and practice compared to certain trading partners; and
- an evaluation of the performance, methods, use and effectiveness of the current system in achieving its objectives.
Ethiopia is currently involved in a number of international trade negotiations which will have a far-reaching impact on the Ethiopian economy. Negotiations take place both at the multilateral level (Ethiopia’s accession to the World Trade Organisation) and inter-regionally (Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union). Regionally, studies are under way on the establishment of economic integration among members of the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development and the Sana’a Forum for Co-operation. Finally, a decision will have to be taken regarding Ethiopia’s potential joining the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa’s (COMESA) Free Trade Area – which might be superseded by a Tripartite FTA combining the 26 members of COMESA, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the East African Community (EAC).
The European Union is one of the most active users of antidumping and antisubsidy measures (trade defense instruments or TDIs) worldwide. Traditionally, TDIs have been characterized as the international trade analogue of internal market competition policies, addressing predatory and other price-distorting and anti-competitive business practices of firms and market-distorting measures of foreign governments (whether for “strategic policy” or mercantilist objectives). The economic literature, however, is quite overwhelmingly negative towards the way TDIs have been used and indeed calls into question whether there is any defensible policy rationale for their existence. This judgment is based on analyses of why, how and with what effect TDIs have been used.
The surprise devaluation of the Ethiopian birr on August 31, 2010 was apparently undertaken to boost export performance and bring about structural change in the economy. This was a bold and important move because it indicates recognition by the Ethiopian government that its policy setting had been a factor in inhibiting Ethiopia’s external performance and industrial development.