Other publications

Other publications include working papers published by other institutions, published consulting studies, etc. In this section, we provide summaries of these papers along with download options where available.

In developing economies, the service sector generates about 55% of national product and half of total female employment. Manufacturing, mining and agriculture account for the rest. Services also account for a significant share of exports, particularly when services that are traded indirectly, through their incorporation in exported goods, are included. Despite its predominance, little analysis has been done so far of the links between trade in services and employment outcomes by gender. This study aims to fill part of this gap.

The interconnection between gender and foreign direct investment (FDI) is becoming an increasingly important area for policy makers because understanding FDI’s role in enhancing gender equality and other marginalised or disadvantaged communities will bring multiple gains. Evidence now indicates that FDI is positively related to women’s employment, particularly in developing countries as a result of large-scale activities in women-dominated and labour-intensive garment and food industries. Conversely, women’s disempowerment causes staggeringly deep losses in productivity, economic activity, and human capital.

This Guide explains how the regulation of FDI has evolved, why Gender Equality and Social Inclusion (GESI) needs to be addressed in international investment treaties and the ways in which this can be implemented, along with the associated challenges. It is a basic ‘crossover’ guide for audiences based in two very different domains of policymaking: investment law and policymakers and negotiators on the one hand and gender equality ministries and civil society stakeholders, on the other.

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Voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) have emerged as one of the main tools used to articulate, encourage and enforce sustainable and ethical practices in global value chains. With this study we explore the nature and evolution of VSS and assess their potential contribution to gender equality and women’s empowerment (SDG 5). The purpose of the study is to enable policymakers in developing and emerging economies to identify opportunities to engage with VSS initiatives as a means to deliver on gender commitments while also promoting trade and economic development.  

The first step in gender-aware economic analysis involves building the statistical picture of an economy as a gendered structure. Such a picture, if appropriately disaggregated in terms of production sectors, workers’ and households’ characteristics can provide a useful baseline from which to track the direct and indirect effects of trade changes by gender. By highlighting existing inequalities, it can help assess whether proposed trade reforms and agreements are likely to redress or intensify bottlenecks to women’s access to economic resources and opportunities. It can also guide the selection of relevant indicators for ex-post monitoring.

This guide offers an introduction to gender-aware data analysis for assessing distributional effects of international trade at the country level. It describes conceptual frameworks and data sources and shows how to use statistical data to understand the linkages between changes in trade policies and various dimensions of gender inequality. The guide is designed primarily for data analysts and policy advisers. It could also be of help to women’s organizations and other civil society stakeholders involved in trade consultations.

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